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Key Terms

[1] Chander, S. (2017). Women of Colour in the Workplace. European Network Against Racism. 

Women of color
Women of color is a term used to describe women of racial, ethnic and religious minority backgrounds; women who are not white; or women who experience racism. The term ‘woman’ is used here to include all those self-identifying as women and is deliberately inclusive of members of the non-binary and transgender communities.[1]

[2] Chander, S. (2017). Women of Colour in the Workplace. European Network Against Racism. 

Intersectionality is a concept with roots in Black feminism that considers the interconnected nature of a number of systems of oppression, such as racism, sexism, homophobia, and classism. The theory highlights that social identities, such as race, gender, sexuality, class, marital status and age, overlap and intersect in dynamic ways that shape each individual.[2]

[3] Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 797–811. 

Stereotype threat
Stereotype threat is defined as a “socially premised psychological threat that arises when one is in a situation or doing something for which a negative stereotype about one’s group applies.”[3] For example, when female students are given a math exam and told that the exam is diagnostic of their own intellectual abilities, negative stereotypes of women as less capable mathematicians can actually negatively impact their performance on the exam.

[6] Wittemyer, R., Nowski, T., Elingrud, K., Conway, M., & Jalbert, C. (2018). Rebooting Representation. Pivotal Ventures & McKinsey & Company. 


Equity is both an outcome and a process. As an outcome, we achieve equity when race, gender, or other aspects of identity no longer determine one’s socioeconomic outcomes; when everyone has what they need to thrive, no matter where they live or work. As a process, we apply equity when those most impacted by structural racial inequity are meaningfully involved in the creation and implementation of the institutional policies and practices that impact their lives. [from Race Forward]

[6] Wittemyer, R., Nowski, T., Elingrud, K., Conway, M., & Jalbert, C. (2018). Rebooting Representation. Pivotal Ventures & McKinsey & Company. 


The measure of the quality of representation, such as full access, authentic representation, empowered participation, true belonging and power-sharing. Inclusion is a qualitative measure of representation and participation. [from Race Forward]

[4] NYT Employment and Training Coalition, Per Scholas, The Door, & General Assembly. (2020). Bridging New Yorkers into Good Jobs: A Toolkit for Expanding Bridge Programs in NYC

Bridge training
Bridge programs teach people the skills they need to be accepted into job training or higher education programs — and pursue careers that were previously out of reach. Bridge programs typically combine contextualized preparation for job training with wraparound support services to help students complete their programs and ultimately find stable employment.[4]

[5] Akkara, J. (n.d.). IT Apprenticeship Programs: Building the Last Mile in Tech Education. New England Board of Higher Education. Retrieved December 15, 2022.

Last mile training
Last-mile training programs provide the missing link between education and employment. Opportunities like IT apprenticeship programs enable talented individuals to receive the career-specific training they need—such as coding in the languages and structure required by employers—at specialized training institutions over an intensive few months of courses, projects, experiential learning and job training.[5]

[6] Walsh, M., & Simon, J. (n.d.). The Equation for Equality. Command Shift. 

Skill similarity
Skill similarity is the overlap in knowledge, skills, and abilities between two jobs. When it comes to skill similarity between tech and non-tech jobs, some of the overlapping skills are tech skills and some are not. For example, Electronic Medical Records Specialists develop tech skills such as information system management, technical support, and data entry. They also develop skills that are not explicitly tech skills but have value in tech jobs, such as process improvement and quality assurance and control.[6]